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Glossary Term S - Web Hosting Glossary

S/MIME
Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions - a way of making email messages more secure. S/MIME uses digital certificates to attest the message origin and encryption to ensure that message could not be read while in transit.

Scripting Language
A programming language in which programs are the series of commands that are interpreted and then executed one by one. Doesn't require the compilation phase, for the price of lower performance.

SCSI Drives - Small Computer System Interface
Pronounced "scuzzy". An interface standard for connecting peripheral devices to computers. SCSI Drives are usually much more efficient and are able to spin faster than IDE drives. Hardware components for implementing a SCSI interface include connector ports on computers and cables for connecting peripheral devices to the computer. SCSI is gradually being supplanted by the newer USB standard.

Search engine
An Internet service that stores a vast number of web pages and allows for fast searching among them. Also, a piece of software that implements a website search functionality.

Search form
An online form in which a query to the webpages database is specified.

Search Indexer
A search engine uses search indexer to provide faster search.

Second Level Domain
In the Domain Name System (DNS), the next lower level of the hierarchy underneath the top level domains. In a domain name, that portion of the domain name that appears immediately to the left of the .com, .net, .org, etc...) For example, the "100best" in 100best.com would be the second level domain and the top-level domain is .com.

Secondary Server
The secondary name server will be used as a backup for the primary name server in the event that the primary server becomes unavailable. Name servers usually look something like this (NS1.YOURHOST.COM, NS2.YOURHOST.COM)

Secure Web Site
Refers to any Web site that uses encrypted transmissions and takes other appropriate measures to ensure the protection of sensitive information such as credit card information.

Self Extracting Archive
An archived file that is also an executable program. The original archived file is decompressed when that program is run.

SEO - Search Engine Optimization
A form of online marketing, search engine optimization (or search engine marketing) is the process of making a site and its content highly relevant for both search engines and searchers. Successful search marketing helps a site gain top positioning for relevant words and phrases.

Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP)
Another network protocol used to connect computers to the networks. Similar to PPP.

Serial Number Field
Any code used to give a sequential series of numbers for identification.

Server
A networked computer that handles client requests for Web pages.

Service Provider
A company that provides access to the Internet, usually for a fee.

Session
All the data exchange between two parties, starting when the connection is established and ending when connection terminates.

Setup fee
Initial fee charged by a host to set up your hosting account. You can use our Price Search to minimize your costs over a period of time including the setup fee.

Shared Registration System
A domain name registration system in which registry services are shared among multiple independent registrars. Shared Registration Systems require a loose coupling between registrars and a registry.

Shared Server
A shared server is a Web server that shares computer resources with other servers on a single machine. Shared Web servers are a way of providing low-cost Web hosting services. Instead of requiring a separate computer for each server, dozens of shared servers can co-reside on the same computer. This allows a single machine to act as many separate systems.

Shared Web Hosting
The most basic of Web hosting types. With shared hosting, numerous Web sites are shared on one server. While an economic solution, they typically cannot handle large amounts of storage or traffic.

Shell Account
A shell account is a connection that enables an end-user's computer to act as a terminal on an Internet host. In this case, the terminal user is not directly on the Internet, but is using a machine that is. This means that functions such as transferring files require an extra "hop"; users must first transfer the file to the Internet host, then download it through the terminal connection to their desktop.

Shockwave
A technology that enables web pages to include multimedia objects such as audio, animation, and video; you use an authoring tool by Macromedia called "Director" to create a shockwave object and a program called "Afterburner" to compress the object. A plug-in available from Macromedia's web site is required to see a Shockwave object included on a web page.

Shopping cart
A program designed to handle the e-commerce section of a Web site. Shopping cart software lets users browse for and purchase products online.

SHTTP - Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol
Secure HTTP. A version of HTTP protocol that uses encryption to assure that the traffic between the server and the browser cannot be eveasdropped on. Should be considered mandatory for all e-commerce applications.

Signature
A few lines of text that are automatically attached at the end of each email message by the email client. Usually it's some personal identification or an (un)interesting quote.

Signed Applet
An applet that has a digital signature to confirm that it originates from the legitimate server.

SLA - Service Level Agreement
A contract between the provider and the user that specifies the level of service that is expected during its term. SLAs are used by vendors and customers, as well as internally by IT shops and their end users. They can specify bandwidth availability, response times for routine and ad hoc queries and response time for problem resolution (network down, machine failure, etc.). SLAs can be very general or extremely detailed, including the steps taken in the event of a failure.

Slave Server
A machine or component controlled by another machine or component. When two devices are synchronized to one another it is necessary to have one be the master and the other the slave. The slave unit responds to commands or information from the master and is thus controlled by it. This is the basic principle behind all synchronization in audio and video.

SLIP - Serial Line Internet Protocol
A standard way of connecting a computer to the internet via the telephone line.

SMDS - Switched Multimegabit Data Service
A packet-based network service allowing the creation of high-speed data networks (up to 45 Mbit/s). Now in the testing and initial implementation phases.

Smileys
Characters used in text-only communications to convey emotions. Example :) :-) ;-) :O :(...

SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
SMTP is short for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, a protocol used by email servers to exchange messages with each other.

Sniffer
A program to capture data across a computer network. Used by hackers to capture user id names and passwords. Software tool that audits and identifies network traffic packets. Is also used legitimately by network operations and maintenance personnel to troubleshoot network problems.

SNMP - Simple Network Management Protocol
The most widespread protocol used for network management.

SOA - Service Oriented Architecture
A system for linking resources on demand. In an SOA, resources are made available to other participants in the network as independent services that are accessed in a standardized way. This provides for more flexible loose coupling of resources than in traditional systems architectures.

Spam
Unsolicited email sent in mass quantities to multiple receipents, most often for marketing purposes. Highly annoying and constituting one of the most serious netiquette violations.

Spam filter
A protective program on a mail server or computer that prevents unsolicited commercial email from reaching the end-user. Usually provided by ISPs such as AOL or Earthlink for free. Some smaller service providers charge a small fee.

Spider
An automated software that retrieves webpages and follows the hyperlinks contained in them. Used to generate indexes used by search engines.

SPX - Sequenced Packet Exchange
A proprietary Novell network protocol used in conjunction with IPX.

Spyware
A program/technology that assists in gathering information about a person or organization without their knowledge. On the Internet, "spyware is programming that is put in someone's computer to secretly gather information about the user and relay it to advertisers or other interested parties." As such, spyware is cause for public concern about privacy on the World Wide Web. Usually included or "bundled" with programs used for file sharing.

SQL - Standard Query Language
SQL Short for Standard Query Language. A standard protocol used to request information from databases. Servers which can handle SQL are known as SQL servers or SQL database enabled.

SQL- Structured Query Language
A programming language for sending queries to databases. Most industrial-strength and many smaller database applications can be addressed using SQL. Each specific application will have its own utilization of features unique to that application, but all SQL-capable databases support a common subset of SQL.

SRV Record
Also known as a Service record. An SRV record is intended to provide information on available services. A SRV record has four fields and a unique system for naming. The naming system is an underscore followed by the name of the service, followed by a period, and underscore, and then the protocol, another dot, and then the name of the domain.

SSH - Secure Shell
Developed by SSH Communications Security, it is a standard for encrypted terminal Internet connections. SSH programs provide strong authentication and encrypted communications, replacing less secure access methods like telnet.

SSI - Server Side Includes
Instructs the server to include some dynamic information in a Web page before it is sent to a client. This dynamic information could be current date, an opinion poll, etc. Many hosts require that SSI pages have .shtml extension to reduce the load on servers by not having to parse non-SSI pages.

SSL - Secure Sockets Layer
Secure Sockets Layer is a protocol developed by Netscape to handle and protect confidential/sensitive information required for e-commerce transactions (like credit card numbers). SSL addresses usually begin with 'https' and are essential in online shopping cart systems.

SSL certificate
A data record used for authenticating network entities such as a server or a client. A certificate contains X.509 information pieces about its owner (called the subject) and the signing Certificate Authority (called the issuer), plus the owner's public key and the signature made by the CA. Network entities verify these signatures using CA certificates.

Static (or dedicated) IP
If a host offers a static IP, it means that your site will be assigned a unique and unchanging IP address. See the FAQ for some possible advantages of using a static IP.

Static IP address
A static IP Address is assigned by a service provider that never changes. This requires that the service provider keep at least one IP address per customer. Because their IP address remains fixed, static IP addresses can be used for hosting name servers.

Statistics
Statistics are important to find out who is coming to your site, what pages they are visiting, where they are coming from, which browsers are being used and more. Some hosts will provide access to only the raw log files, while others allow you to generate statistics reports. We recommend Webalizer for viewing your log files / reports.

Sticky (content)
Sticky is another word for web site content. These types of site provide information to web visitors. Search engines give better rankings to sites with good content related to their site topic.

STP - Shielded Twisted Pair
Cabling consisting of pairs of insulated wires wrapped in metal to minimize interference.

Streaming
Playing multimedia files (audio and video) without requiring a full download. Audio and video are compressed but they still may require a lot of bandwidth. Most popular streaming media formats are Real Audio/Video.

Style sheets
Style sheets let you manage text / web site appearance by allowing designers to set styles based on not only font face, but point size, leading, and margins. They can be implemented on global (web) or local scales.

Subdomain
Typically known as a "domain within a domain", subdomains are individual Web addresses built upon a pre-existing domain name (such as clientname.yourhostingcompany.com). As a reseller, you will have the option of assigning subdomains to clients if they do not choose to have a domain name.

Submission
Search engine submission - when you submit your website pages to a directory or search engine such as Google, Yahoo, or DMOZ.

Subnet
This is a term that refers to a group of TCP/IP addresses. Addresses in the same subnet are reachable without going through a router, and thus can be reached by broadcast. To reach addresses outside of a particular subnet, you must transmit through a router. This is all part of the TCP/IP protocol.

Support
Sometimes called Tech Support. When the hosting company provides help to accomplish certain tasks on the Internet when it pertains to the web server details. Setting up POP email accounts, FTP, database issues, and other regular tasks.

surfing
Slang term for exploring the Internet, as in "surfing the net" or "surfing the web". Most often used in reference to accessing sites on the World Wide Web.

Swish files (.swf)
Swish is a program used to create animations for text, images and sound. Files can be exported to Macromedia Flash, used in web authoring programs such as Front Page and Dreamweaver or presentation software eg, PowerPoint 2000. Commonly used in presentation of web sites.

Switch
A switch is a network device that forwards packets. Switches are more intelligent than hubs in a sense that they forward packets only to the necessary ports and not to all the ports.

 
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